On this day in 1941, Drancy Internment Camp opened as an assembly and detention camp for Jewish people who would later be deported to other camps elsewhere. Originally built as a modern urban community, named La Cite de la Muette – The Silent City – it was situated in Drancy, a northeastern suburb of Paris, France.
On 20th August 1941, French police raided the 11th arrondissement of Paris, arresting over 4,000 Jews. The French authorities interned them at Drancy, marking its official opening. Barbed-wire fencing wrapped around the barracks and courtyard, while guards patrolled the camp.
There were five subcamps of Drancy throughout Paris. Following the Vel’ d’Hiv Roundup on July 16th & 17th 1942, over 4,900 of the 13,152 people arrested were sent to Drancy prior to their deportation to Auschwitz.
Between June 1942 and July 1944, around 67,400 French, German and Polish Jews would be deported from Drancy in 64 rail transports. This included 6,000 children.
Drancy was under the control of French police until being handed over to SS officer, Alois Brunner in 1943.
On 17th August 1944, the Swedish Consul-General Raoul Nordling took control of the camp after the Germans fled the advancing Allied forces, then handed it over to the French Red Cross. Only 1542 prisoners remained alive.
In 2001, Alois Brunner was brought before a French court by Nazi hunter, Serge Klarsfeld, and received a life sentence for crimes against humanity.
The film, “La Rafle” – “The Roundup” portrays the events of the Vel d’Hiv roundup. It is a portrayal of a grievous episode in WW2 history, of complicity and betrayal by the Vichy government and the French police. As it has been said many times over the years, this was a “stain of the war” that ashamedly went unacknowledged for many years by the French government until the 1990s.
Synopsis from imdb.com:
1942. Joseph is eleven. And this June morning, he must go to school, a yellow star sewn on his chest. He receives the support of a goods dealer. The mockery of a baker. Between kindness and contempt, Jo, his Jewish friends, their families, learn of life in an occupied Paris, on the Butte Montmartre, where they’ve taken shelter. At least that’s what they think, until that morning on July 16th 1942, when their fragile happiness is toppled over. From the Vélodrome D’Hiver, where 13 000 Jews are crammed, to the camp of Beaune-La-Rolande, from Vichy to the terrace of the Berghof, La Rafle follows the real destinies of the victims and the executioners. Of those who orchestrated it all. Of those who trusted them. Of those who fled. Of those who opposed them. Every character in this film has existed. Every event, even the most extreme, transpired on that summer of 1942.